تبلیغات
The Articles - صفات
prepared:by Mansoor Faryadi

صفات

نویسنده :منصور فریادی
تاریخ:دوشنبه 8 آبان 1391-02:32 ق.ظ

انواع صفـــــات

صفت كلمه ای است كه اسم را توصیف می كند و در انگلیسی همواره قبل از اسم یا بعد از افعال to be بكار می رود.

صفات توصیفی به چهار دسته تقسیم می شوند.

1- صفات ساده: چنانچه بخواهیم كسی یا چیزی را بدون مقایسه با دیگران توصیف كنیم از صـــفات ساده استفاده می كنیم.

[old – fat – young  – beautiful  –  expensive – interesting]

He is an old man.

I have a beautiful garden.

2- صفات همپایه: چنانچه  دو نفر یا دو چیز در یك صفت مشترك باشند بگونه ای كه به یك اندازه از آن صفت برخوردار باشند، در این حالت از صفت همپایه استفاده می شود.

چنانچه صفت ساده را بین دو as قرار دهیم صفت همپایه بوجود می آید.

[as old as – as fat as – as young as – as beautiful as – as expensive as]

He is as old as Ali.

My garden is as beautiful as your garden.

3- صفات تفضیلی: چنانچه قصد مقایسه دو نفر یا دو چیز را داشته باشیم بگونه ای كه یكـــی از آنها در آن صفت برتر از دیگری باشد ، در این حالت از صفت تفضیلی استفاده می كنیم.

طرز ساختن صفت تفضیلی

الف) چنانچه صفت یك بخشی باشد، با اضافه كردن پسوند er به آخر صفت، آنرا تفضیلی می كنیم.

صفت تفضیلیer =  + صفت یك بخشی

[older – fatter – younger – longer – taller – bigger]

He is older than Ali.

I am taller than you.

ب) چنانچه صفت چند بخشی باشد، با اضافه كردن more به ابتدای صفت آنرا تفضیلی می كنیم .

صفت تفضیلی = صفت چند بخشی + more

[more beautiful – more expensive – more interesting]

My garden is more beautiful than your garden.

This car is more expensive than that car.

تذكر: علامت صفت تفضیلی در جمله كلمه than به معنی (از - نسبت به) می با شد.

4- صفات عالی: چنانچه قصد مقایسه یك نفر یا یك چیز را با افرادی یا چیزهایی داشته باشیم بــه گونه ای كه بخواهیم بگوییم آن یك نفر یا یك چیز در یك صفت از دیگران برتر است ، در این حالت از صفت عالی استفاده می كنیم .

طرز ساختن صفات عالی

الف) چنانچه صفت ساده یك بخشی باشد، با اضافه كردن پسوند est به آخر صفت، آنرا عالــــــی میكنیم.

صفت عالی = est  + صفت یك بخشی

 

[oldest – fattest – youngest]

He is the oldest man in his family.

Ali is the youngest boy in his class.

 ب) چنانچه صفت ساده چند بخشی باشد، با اضافه كردن most به ابتدای صفت، آنرا عالی می كنیم.

 

صفت عالی = صفت چند بخشی + the most

[most beautiful – most expensive – most interesting]

My garden is the most beautiful in the city.

تذكر1 : علامت صفت عالی در جمله كلمه in به معنی (در) می باشد .

تذكر2 : قبل از صفات عالی همیشه حرف تعریف the بكار می رود .

تذكر3 : صفات دو بخشی مختوم به y مانند یك بخشی ها تفضیلی و عالی می شوند با این تفاوت كــه هنگام افزودن er و est به آخرشان ، y به i تبدیل می شود .

heavy + er = heavier

heavy + est = heaviest

تذكر4 : بعضی از صفات از قوانین فوق پیروی نمی كنند . و ما می بایست شكل تفضیلی و عالی آنــها را حفظ كنیم. 

                                  

صفت عالی

صفت تفضیلی

معنی

صفت ساده

best

better

خوب

good

worst

worse

بد

bad

most

more

زیاد

many

most

more

زیاد

much

 

گزینه صحیح را مشخص كنید.

1. Mina is as (busy – busier – busiest) as her brother.

2. We are as (younger – younger than – young as) our friends.

3. Your library has (the most – many – more) books than our library.

4. The cartoon was (better – good – best) than the film.                               

5. Iran is the (most important – more important –important) country in Asia.

6. Mr Irani is (tall – taller – as tall as) Mr Tehrani.

7. Ali’s car is (expensive – more expensive – the most expensive) than Reza’s.

 




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